Penetration Grade Bitumen

What is Penetration Grade Bitumen?

Penetration Grade Bitumen is a classification of asphalt products that are characterized by their penetration properties. It is the most common form of bitumen used in road construction and maintenance around the world. The penetration grade is determined by the depth (in tenths of a millimeter) that a standard needle will penetrate vertically into a sample of the bitumen under specific conditions of temperature (25°C), load (100 grams), and time (5 seconds). This test is specified in ASTM D5 or EN 1426 standards.

 

The grades are typically denoted by the penetration range, such as 40/50, 60/70, 80/100, etc., where the numbers indicate the tenths of a millimeter that the needle penetrates the bitumen sample. For instance, a 60/70 penetration grade bitumen means the needle penetrates between 60 to 70 tenths of a millimeter under the standard test conditions. These specifications reflect the hardness or softness of the bitumen, with lower penetration grades indicating harder, less penetrable materials that are suitable for warmer climates, and higher penetration grades indicating softer bitumen for cooler climates.

 

Technical specifications for Penetration Grade Bitumen also include other properties like softening point (ASTM D36 or EN 1427), which indicates the temperature at which bitumen reaches a certain degree of softening; ductility (ASTM D113 or EN 13589), which measures the distance a bitumen sample can be stretched before breaking; and viscosity (ASTM D4402 or EN 12596), which assesses the flow characteristics of the bitumen at elevated temperatures. These parameters help ensure that the bitumen will perform adequately under expected temperature ranges and traffic loads, providing the necessary durability and flexibility for the pavement structure.

Determining Penetration Grade Bitumen:

The test to determine the degree of penetration of bitumen is done to determine their relative hardness and one of the methods of naming different types of them is to use the value of penetration grade bitumen.

The test to determine the degree of penetration of bitumen is done to determine their relative hardness and is one of the most widely used tests related to bitumen. One of the methods of naming types of bitumen is to use the value of their degree of penetration.

Because bitumen has a viscoelastic nature, its behavior depends on changes in the degree of gravity and the amount of loading per unit of time. 

For example, In hot weather, bitumen acts like a viscous liquid, and in this case, permanent deformation and less reversible grooves in it.

In cold weather, bitumen acts like a solid elastic material and changes its shape during the passage of vehicles.

Tests of penetration grade bitumen are often performed at different temperatures of 25 degrees, and penetration grade bitumen does not indicate its behavior at other temperatures.

Reasons for importance of penetration grade bitumen:

The most important application of penetration grade bitumen is to find out the area where bitumen is used, such as hot areas or roads with a lot of traffic.

Bitumen with a higher degree of penetration is used for cold areas and it is used less. 

So, the bitumen becomes harder, its degree of penetration decreases, and the softer the amount of bitumen, the higher its degree of penetration. 

The purpose of this test is to determine the penetration rate of bitumen and bituminous materials in solid and semi-solid forms.

The penetration degree of bitumen test is used to measure the consistency so that a higher penetration degree indicates a lower consistency and a lower penetration degree bitumen indicates a higher consistency. 

The types of penetration grade bitumen are based on the range of their penetration.

Different Types of Bitumen:

  • Bitumen penetration grade 30/40
  • Bitumen penetration grade 40/50
  • Bitumen penetration grade 60/70
  • Bitumen penetration grade 85/100
  • Bitumen penetration grade 100/120

The most important application of penetration grade bitumen is to find out the area where bitumen is used, such as hot areas or roads with a lot of traffic.

Bitumen with a higher degree of penetration is used for cold areas and it is used less. 

So, the bitumen becomes harder, its degree of penetration decreases, and the softer the amount of bitumen, the higher its degree of penetration. 

The purpose of this test is to determine the penetration rate of bitumen and bituminous materials in solid and semi-solid forms.

The penetration degree of bitumen test is used to measure the consistency so that a higher penetration degree indicates a lower consistency and a lower penetration degree bitumen indicates a higher consistency. 

Bitumen 30/40

Test method

Unit

Specifications

Specific Gravity @ 25°C

ASTM D-70

Kg/cm3

1.01-1.06

Penetration @ 25°C

ASTM D-5

mm/10

30-40

Softening Point °C

ASTM D-36

°C

55-63

Ductility @25 °C

ASTM D-113

cm

100 Min

Loss on Heating (wt.) %

ASTM D-6

Wt. %

0.2 Max

Drop in Penetration after Heating %

ASTM D-5 D-6

%

20 Max

Flash Point °C

ASTM D-92

°C

250 Min

Solubility is CS2 (wt.) %

ASTM D-4

Wt. %

99.5 Min

Spot Test

A.A.S.H.O. T102

-

Negative

Bitumen Penetration Grade 30/40

It is a standard type of bitumen penetration grade. This grade is manufactured from the fractional vacuum of crude oil.

Bitumen 30/40 is semi-hard penetration grade bitumen used as a paving grade bitumen, for constructing and repairing a road. It is also used to produce asphalt pavements with the below technical specification.

Bitumen 30/40 is used for manufacturing hot mix asphalt for wearing courses and bases. Bitumen grade 30/40 is one of the most used bitumen as a basic material for all other bituminous products.

Application of bitumen penetration grade 30/40

Bitumen penetration grade 30/40 is used for constructing roads and repairing asphalt pavements with superior properties. Bitumen 30/40 is mainly used for manufacturing hot mix asphalt for wearing courses and bases.

Description

Limit

Test Methods

Density at 25°C

1.01-1.06

ASTM D-7

Penetration Rate at 25°C

30-40

ASTM D-5

Softening Point °C

55-63

ASTM D-36

Ductility at 25 °C (cm) - Min

100

ASTM D-113

Flash Point °C - Min

250

ASTM D-92

Solubility in Disulfide %wt.

99.5

ASTM D-4

Spot Test

Negative

A.A.S.H.O.T.102

Weight Loss by Heating %wt., Max

0.2

ASTM D-6

Penetration Loss by Heating % , Max

20

ASTM D-5 D-6

Availability and Ordering:

Grand Petroleum Company provides Penetration Grade Bitumen at competitive prices, available in both drum and bulk formats for local and global markets. To inquire about the latest pricing or to initiate an order, Contact Grand Petroleum Sales Department.

Bitumen Penetration Grade 40/60

Bitumen Penetration Grade 40/60 is used for road construction and producing asphalt pavements and is mainly used for manufacturing hot mix asphalt, bases, and course wearing.

Bitumen Penetration Grade 40/60 is for the production of asphalt pavements with superior properties and creates a unique and sustainable bituminous mix.

This product is used on tropical regions’ roads. 

Description

Limit

Test Methods

Density at 25°C

1.01-1.06

ASTM D70

Penetration Rate at 25°C

40-60

EN 1426

Softening Point °C

48-56

EN 1427

Ductility at 25 °C (cm), Min

100

ASTM D113

Flash Point °C, Min

230

EN 22592

Solubility in Trichloroethylene or Xylene

%wt., Min

99

ASTM D2042

Change in Mass %, Max

0.2

EN 12607-1

Retained Penetration 25°C, 100g, 5s
(% of original) %, Min

50

EN 1426

Bitumen Penetration Grade 60/70

penetration grade bitumen 60/70 has a penetration value in the range of 60 to 70 at standard test conditions.

penetration grade Bitumen 60/70 is semi-hard penetration grade bitumen.

This type of bitumen is one of the most used bitumen grades and it’s a basic material for all other bituminous products.

Application of bitumen penetration grade 60/70

Bitumen 60/70 is suitable for constructing roads and making asphalt pavements. 

This kind of bitumen is used in the manufacture of hot mix asphalt for bases and wearing courses.

An important usage of penetration grade bitumen 60/70 is used in the road in mild regions. Also, Due to its medium air blowing and penetration, it is used in mild areas too.

Description

Limit

Test Methods

Density at 25°C

1.01-1.06

ASTM D70

Penetration Rate at 25°C

60-70

ASTM D5

Softening Point °C

49-56

ASTM D36

Ductility at 25 °C (cm), Min

100

ASTM D113

Flash Point °C, Min

250

ASTM D92

Solubility in Disulfide %wt.

99.5

ASTM D2042

Spot Test

Negative

A.A.S.H.O.T.102

Weight Loss by Heating %Wt., Max

0.2

ASTM D6

Availability and Ordering:

Grand Petroleum Company provides Penetration Grade Bitumen at competitive prices, available in both drum and bulk formats for local and global markets. To inquire about the latest pricing or to initiate an order, Contact Grand Petroleum Sales Department.

Bitumen Penetration Grade 80/100

Bitumen Penetration Grade 80/100 is used for making hot mix asphalt for bases and wearing courses. The classification of bitumen is based on penetration range. Bitumen 85/100 has a thermoplastic property. 

This property causes the material to soften at high temperatures and to harden at lower temperatures. Penetration grade bitumen 80/100 is one of the most used bitumen and it’s used for basic material at all other bituminous products.

Application of bitumen penetration grade 80/100

Bitumen 80/100 is suitable for constructing roads and for making asphalt pavements. This type of bitumen is used for manufacturing hot mix asphalt for bases and wearing courses.

Description

Limit

Test Methods

Density at 25°C

1.01-1.06

ASTM D-70

Penetration Rate at 25°C

80-100

ASTM D-5

Softening Point °C

42-50

ASTM D-36

Ductility at 25 °C (cm), Min

100

ASTM D-113

Flash Point °C, Min

250

ASTM D-92

Solubility in Disulfide %wt.

99.5

ASTM D-4

Spot Test

Negative

A.A.S.H.O.T.102

Weight Loss by Heating %Wt., Max

0.2

ASTM D-6

Bitumen Penetration Grade 100/120

Bitumen 100/120 is good for paving and it is suitable for road construction and the production of asphalt pavements.

This grade of bitumen is used in the manufacture of hot mix asphalt for bases and wearing courses.

The penetration grade of bitumen has a thermoplastic property. this property causes the substance to soften at high temperatures and to harden at lower degrees.

Description

Limit

Test Methods

Density at 25°C

1.01-1.06

ASTM D-70

Penetration Rate at 25°C

100-120

ASTM D-5

Softening Point °C

42-49

ASTM D-36

Ductility at 25 °C (cm), Min

100

ASTM D-113

Flash Point °C, Min

250

ASTM D-92

Solubility in Trichloroethylene %wt., Min

99.0

ASTM D-4

Loss on Heating %, Max

0.2

ASTM D-6

Spot Test

Negative

A.A.S.H.O.T.102

Application of bitumen penetration grade 100/150

Penetration Grade Bitumen 100/150 is suitable for constructing roads and asphalt pavements. This type of bitumen is used in the manufacture of hot mix asphalt for bases and wearing courses.

Description

Limit

Test Methods

Density at 25°C

1.00-1.05

ASTM D-70

Penetration Rate at 25°C

100-150

ASTM D-5

Softening Point °C

39-47

ASTM D-36

Ductility at 25 °C (cm), Min

100

ASTM D-113

Flash Point °C, Min

218

ASTM D-92

Solubility in Trichloroethylene %wt., Min

99.0

ASTM D-4

Loss on Heating %, Max

0.5

ASTM D-6

Spot Test

Negative

A.A.S.H.O.T.102

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